International Mathematics Competition
for University Students
2017

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IMC2017: Day 2, Problem 8

8. Define the sequence $A_1,A_2,\ldots$ of matrices by the following recurrence: $$ A_1 = \begin{pmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}, \quad A_{n+1} = \begin{pmatrix} A_n & I_{2^n} \\ I_{2^n} & A_n \\ \end{pmatrix} \quad (n=1,2,\ldots) $$ where $I_m$ is the $m\times m$ identity matrix.

Prove that $A_n$ has $n+1$ distinct integer eigenvalues $\lambda_0< \lambda_1<\ldots <\lambda_n$ with multiplicities $\binom{n}{0},\binom{n}{1},\ldots,\binom{n}{n}$, respectively.

Proposed by: Snježana Majstorović, University of J. J. Strossmayer in Osijek

    

IMC
2017

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