Problem 6. Let \(\displaystyle k\) be a positive integer. Find the smallest positive integer \(\displaystyle n\) for which there exist \(\displaystyle k\) nonzero vectors \(\displaystyle v_1,\ldots,v_k\) in \(\displaystyle \mathbb R^n\) such that for every pair \(\displaystyle i,j\) of indices with \(\displaystyle |i-j|> 1\) the vectors \(\displaystyle v_i\) and \(\displaystyle v_j\) are orthogonal.

(Proposed by Alexey Balitskiy, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and M.I.T.)

Problem 7. Let \(\displaystyle (a_n)_{n=0}^\infty\) be a sequence of real numbers such that \(\displaystyle a_0=0\) and

(Proposed by Orif Ibrogimov, National University of Uzbekistan)

Problem 8. Let \(\displaystyle \Omega={(x,y,z)\in \mathbb{Z}^3: y+1\ge x\ge y\ge z\ge 0}\). A frog moves along the points of \(\displaystyle \Omega\) by jumps of length \(\displaystyle 1\). For every positive integer \(\displaystyle n\), determine the number of paths the frog can take to reach \(\displaystyle (n,n,n)\) starting from \(\displaystyle (0,0,0)\) in exactly \(\displaystyle 3n\) jumps.

(Proposed by Fedor Petrov and Anatoly Vershik, St. Petersburg State University)

Problem 9. Determine all pairs \(\displaystyle P(x)\), \(\displaystyle Q(x)\) of complex polynomials with leading coefficient \(\displaystyle 1\) such that \(\displaystyle P(x)\) divides \(\displaystyle Q(x)^2+1\) and \(\displaystyle Q(x)\) divides \(\displaystyle P(x)^2+1\).

(Proposed by Rodrigo Angelo, Princeton University and Matheus Secco, PUC, Rio de Janeiro)

Problem 10. For \(\displaystyle R>1\) let \(\displaystyle \mathcal{D}_R = {(a,b)\in\mathbb{Z}^2 \colon
0<a^2+b^2<R}\). Compute